Среда, Мая 27, 2020

«ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ПРОБЛЕМЫ. ЗАЩИТА ОКРУЖАЮЩЕЙ СРЕДЫ»

“Ecological problems

ПЛАН-КОНСПЕКТ ОТКРЫТОГО УРОКА В 11 КЛАССЕ ПО ТЕМЕ

«ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ПРОБЛЕМЫ. ЗАЩИТА ОКРУЖАЮЩЕЙ СРЕДЫ»

Практическая цель: Развитие умений говорения.

Сопутствующие задачи:

  • Совершенствование навыков восприятия и понимания ИЯ на слух,
  • формирование познавательных мотивов.
  • Активизировать лексику по теме в разных видах деятельности: аудирование, говорение, письмо

Развивающая цель:

  • развивать навыки монологической речи, активизировать навыки диалогической речи;
  • развивать самостоятельность в коммуникативной деятельности, поддерживать и поощрять развитие творческих способностей учащихся.
  • Развивать у учащихся экологическое мышление, умение ценить окружающий мир, умение ощущать себя неотъемлемой частью окружающего мира

Воспитательная цели:

  • Закрепление интереса к изучаемому языку,
  • воспитание активной жизненной позиции учеников в вопросах экологии;
  • воспитание экологической этики, умения любить и понимать прекрасное в природе.
  • Учить школьников бережно относиться к окружающей среде.

Оборудование: плакаты на экологическую тему, мультимедийная установка, аудиозапись песни, раздаточный материал (газеты, закладки, анкеты), таблички с названиями организаций.

Ход урока

1. Организационный момент.

T:  Good  Morning children and guests! I'm glad to see you. Today we are going to have an unusual lesson. It'll be a conference on the topic “Ecology”. We'll discuss a lot of important problems connected with our topic. We'll have to make up some solutions of our problem.

Let's begin our conference. The representatives of many organizations from different countries have come to the conference.

Attention please, look at the screen!

2. Репортаж

( Участники и гости смотрят мультимедийную презентацию. Ученики взяли интервью друг у друга об экологии и экологических проблемах).

3. Просмотр фильма.

What ecological problems were mentioned? Name them please.

Problems to discuss: air pollution, water pollution, acid rains, disappearing animals, the Greenhouse Effect, the Ozone Hole and many others

Let me introduce our guests to you:

Our photographer and the correspondent of newspaper “Prystalichcha” Alexei Korol.

Yulia Ninkina and Natalia Klochuryak, the representatives of “Akhova ptushak Batskaushchyny” (APB-Birdlife Belarus);

Roman Shilo and Ruslan Fedartsov, the members of Global Environment Facility (GEF);

Arzhanova Antonina, the leader of Green Cross Belarus;

Anastasia Krylovich and Pavel Bashlakov, the representatives of Greenpeace;

Nikolayenko Vladimir and Kryshtaphovich Alexandra, the members of The World Wildlife Fund;

The pupils of 11th form from Prilukskaya school.

Our guests are ready to speak. I want you to be attentive and then you’ll be able to ask them your questions.

Let’s begin!

Who will be the first?

4. Начало обсуждения.

Pupils: (Представители организации «Ахова птушак Бацькаушчыны» рассказывают о своей организации и её работе по защите птиц).

Teacher:  Thank you for your reports! And now, please, representatives of Global Environment Facility (GEF) will tell us about key activities of their organization and such ecological problems as air pollution, ozone holes and greenhouse effect.

Pupils: (Представители Глобального экологического фонда рассказывают о деятельности своей организации, л таких экологических проблемах, как загрязнение воздуха, озоновые дыры и парниковый эффект).

Teacher: Let's listen to Arzhanova Antonina, the leader of Green Cross Belarus. What can you tell us about such ecological problem as land pollution and trash. Listen, please, attentively.

Pupils: (представитель Зелёного креста Беларуси рассказывает о задачах своей организации и проблеме мусора и загрязнения земли).

Teacher: “ Think globally, act locally” This is the motto of “ Greenpeace “ organization. Now the representatives of Greenpeace, Anastasia Krylovich and Pavel Bashlakov, tell us about the activity of their organization and the problems they are concerned about.

Pupils: (Представители Гринписа рассказывают о своей организации, о загрязнении воды и кислотных дождях).

Teacher: Thank you for your reports! And now, please, listen to the representatives of the World Wildlife Fund, Nikolayenko Vladimir and Kryshtaphovich Alexandra.

Pupils: (Представители Международного фонда по защите дикой природы рассказывают об основании организации , об исчезновении животных и пандах).

Teacher: Unfortunately, the time is limited. I want each of you to leave your complaints, suggestions, requests in our book.

You have a couple of minutes.

Thank you for your attention and participation in our programme.  All of you were very active and sociable. Today you have heard much information about each country. I hope you will make a right decision!

Приложение 1

INTERVIEW

1 PUPIL

-  May I ask you a question?

-  Yes, please

- What is environment?

- All things around us are parts of our environment. Plants, animals and people need clean land, clean water and clean air.

- What causes damage to the environment?

- Some people have not learned how to care of our earth. They are doing harmful things to our land, water and even air. They are making pollution. Men have polluted the air, sea and land; used most of the Earth’s oil, gas and coal; completely killed more than 500 kinds of animals, birds and plants; made and used atomic bombs; grown in numbers from 1 billion (in 1830) to nearly  6 billion today. It’s a disaster ant it’s still happening.

2 PUPIL

-  May I ask you a question?

-  Yes, please

- What is ecology?

- Ecology is the science of how living things are related to their environment. Many people all over the world are concerned about the ecology today. The word “ecology” came from the Greek which means “home”.

- Have you heard of Greenpeace?

- Yes, I have. GREEN PEACE is a world-known organization which does a lot to protect our nature.

- What else do you know about the activity of GREEN PEACE?

- GREEN PEACE has brought the plight of the natural world to the attention of caring people. Peaceful direct action by GREEN PEACE has invoked the power of public opinion which in turn has forced changes in the law to protect wildlife and to stop the pollution of the natural world.

3 PUPIL

-  May I ask you a question?

-  Yes, please

-What ecological problems do you know?

- Air and water pollution, land pollution, acid rains, greenhouse effect, car noise, trash, holes in the ozone layer, poisons in food, killing animals, extinction of species, deforestation, peat reclamation and many others.

4 PUPIL

-  May I ask you a question?

-  Yes, please

- What can you tell me about the ecology of the Earth?

- The ecology of Earth is ill, the contradiction between man and nature may lead our planet to a global catastrophe. That is why serious measures to protect environment should be undertaken.

- One should never forget that the Earth is our common and the only home. What should be done?

- The answer is we must stop polluting of air, the land, the water. None-waste technologies, refinery installations, strict ecological education  of the population and thoughtful, careful attitude to everything around you are the answers to the problem of environmental protection. Only in this way we can save our planet for future generations.

Приложение 2

Выступления организаций

1

APB- Birdlife is the Birdlife International Partner in Belarus.

Birdlife International is a worldwide partnership of organizations working for the conservation of birds and their habitats. It is the leading authority on the status of the world’s birds and, using globally agreed criteria, is seeking to identify threatened species and the IBAs that are vital for their long-term conservation.

NGO “Akhova ptushak Batskaushchyny” (APB-Birdlife Belarus) was founded in 1998 and now has more than 1500 members and 12 regional branches across the country. It is the largest wildlife non-governmental organization in Belarus.

The main objectives of the organization are:

  • To protect and conserve the biological diversity of Belarus focusing on birds and their habitats.
  • To increase the public awareness and knowledge of Belarus’ birds and the threats to their existence.
  • To involve people in active nature protection activities.

Key activities:

  • Study and conservation of wild birds.
  • Participation in restoration of popularities of rare bird species, as well as species that have nested previously.
  • Participation in identification, conservation and restoration of habitats important for birds.
  • Involvement of people in practical activities aimed at conservation of wild bird species and their habitats; fascilitating more active participation of the public in nature conservation activities.
  • Promoting of sustainable tourism.

In conclusion I want to say, APB-Birdlife Belarus does its best to find out answers to those questions and make the international slogan “Save the birds – save the future” popular in Belarus.

3

Global Environment Facility (GEF)

The Global Environment Facility (GEF) was created to achieve global environmental benefits by funding programmes and projects that address four focal areas-biodiversity, climate change, international waters, and ozone layer depletion-and those that combat land degradation, desertification, and deforestation as they relate to the focal areas.

Air pollution:

About  150 year ago the air was pure and clean. Then people started building factories and many of the things they make, like cars, put a lot of harmful gases into the air. To day the air is so polluted in some places that it's not always, safe to breathe there. Every year world industry pollutes the atmosphere with about 1000 million tons of dust and harmful substances. Many cities suffer from smog. This is so strong in some places that the air, which should be a beautiful blue, looks brown.

The increase in traffic is threatening serious air pollution in our cities, because vehicles, not factories, produce most of toxic micro-particles, which do most harm. Toxic gases appear in the atmosphere in critical concentration of carbon dioxide is expected to increase at rates that could change the world’s climate. The commonest air pollution comes from the cigarette smoke, which pollutes public places.

The Ozone Hole:

Up in the sky, above the air we breath, there's a layer of gas called ozone. It helps us by blocking out the sun rays that can harm our skin and by letting the rays that are good for us come through. Now the ozone layer is being damaged by gases that people have made. They are used in refrigerators, air conditioners, plastic, foam, and some other things.

Scientists are very concerned about the ozone layer, because a lot of it has gone away in just a few years. So, it's very important.

The Greenhouse Effect:

The "greenhouse effect" is caused by carbon dioxide, which prevents heat from escaping. Global warming or the "greenhouse effect" can cause melting of the polar ice caps, raising of the sea level, and flooding of the coastal areas of the world. There is every reason to fear that such a climatic change may take place. If the earth’s temperature gets hotter by just a few degrees, it could change the weather all over the planet in many ways.

Factories, electric power plants and cars are making a lot of new gases. These gases are trapping more and more of the sun's heat.

4

Green Cross Belarus

Green Cross Belarus is an ecological NGO with the following objectives

  • to promote ecological approach in all spheres of human activity for the sake of preserving life on the planet and harmonious development of civilization;
  • to encourage co-operation between government institutions and public, specialists and talented youth in joint initiatives to solve concrete problems of ecology, science, education, culture and health care;
  • to raise the education and culture level of children and adults;
  • to form ecological awareness of the society in all spheres of human activity;

On the voluntary basis GCB integrates scientists, teachers, doctors, engineers, artists, intellectuals, students and other concerned individuals around Belarus.

One of the problems of land pollution is making large piles of trash. Trash is made of boxes, bags, paper, cans, plastics, clothing and bottles. It is also made up of old food called garbage. Some trash gets burned. When plastics and some other manmade things are burned, gases are given off. Too much of these gases can make people and animals sick. But it would be better if we try to recycle things which we throw in trash. Waste paper, newspapers, unnecessary metal thing must be saved and brought for recycling to special recycling centers. We’ll help to save energy in such a way and to get rid of wastes and pollution associated with the production from raw materials.

Another problem of land pollution is using too many chemicals to grow vegetables and fruit. Too many chemicals in the ground can harm the soil. If our vegetables, fruit and meat are grown without chemicals, they will be safer for us to eat.

5

Greenpeace stands for positive change through action. We defend the natural world and promote peace. We organise public campaigns:

  • for preventing climate change by ending our addiction to polluting fuels and promoting clean, renewable and efficient energy
  • for the protection of oceans and ancient forests
  • for the elimination of toxic chemicals
  • against the release of genetically modified organisms into nature
  • for nuclear disarmament and an end to nuclear contamination.

We are committed to the principles of non-violence, political independence and internationalism. In exposing threats to the environment and in working to find solutions, Greenpeace has no permanent allies or enemies.

Greenpeace has played the main role in the adoption of:

  • a ban on toxic waste exports to less developed countries
  • a moratorium on commercial whaling
  • a United Nations convention providing for better management of world fisheries
  • bans on the dumping at sea of radioactive and industrial waste and disused oil installations
  • a ban on all nuclear weapons testing - our first ever campaign, etc.

. Water pollution:

The planet Earth s mostly water. Oceans cover the biggest part of it – and there are lakes, rivers and oven water underground. Rivers and Lakes are polluted by garbage or by poisonous chemicals which are dumped right into them.

Acid Rains:

When we  look up, we see the clouds and the blue sky. But there are other things in the sky that we don't see. Some of them are harmful to the Earth.

When power plants burn coal to make electricity, and when cars burn gasoline, invisible gases are released into the air. Some of these gases can mix with water and make it acidic, like lemon or vinegar. Acid rain is harmful to planets, rivers and lakes and the creatures that live in them.

It es very important for us to stop making acid rains. One good way to do that is to drive our cars less. Another good way is to save energy. The less energy we use, the less coal those plants will have to burn.

6

The World Wildlife Fund

In 1961 the World Wildlife Fund was founded. At first it was a small group of people who wanted to raise money to save animals and plants from extinction. Today, the World Wildlife Fund is a large international organization. It has collected over 35 million, and they give support to national parks on five continents. It has helped 30 mammals and birds – including the tiger – to survive. Perhaps this is not much, but it is a start. If more people give money, and if more governments help as well, perhaps the World Wildlife Fund will be able to protect the nature from the threat of great pollution and wildlife from extinction.

Disappearing animals:

Many animals and birds on the Earth are disappearing nowadays. Many of them are in danger of becoming extinct. This is because man hunts them, destroys and pollutes their habitat.

People kill animals for different aims: e.g. people hunt whales for their meat and oil; elephants for their tusks, crocodiles for their leather and so on. And also animals are used for medical experiments. The most wide – speared from such animals are monkeys. Modern life is bad for animals, birds, fish. The air isn’t fresh and the water isn’t pure. They don’t have good meal and facilities for the life. You can find their names in the Red Book. Indian tiger and African elephants are among them. People have hunted and killed many tigers in India and a lot of elephants in Africa.

Pandas

Can you believe that every ten minutes, one kind of animal, plant or insect dies out forever. If nothing is done about it, one million kinds of animals and birds that are alive today will disappear from the Earth in twenty years.

The giant panda is a large bearlike animal, and one of the rarest mammals in the world. Its sweet face with the black and white marks has been the symbol for the World Wildlife Fund

since 1961. All efforts are now made to study the giant panda and protect it. Pandas eat flowers, grass and sometimes small animals. They are also very fond of honey. But bamboo is the giant panda’s main food A giant panda spends 10 hours a day, eating. And, to live, it must eat at least 20 kilos of bamboo every day. And this is the problem.

The bamboo has a very unusual lifecycle. It grows for almost 100 years, then it falls down and dies. In ancient times, when large areas of bamboo forest covered a lot of China, the pandas could simply move from one forest to another. But now, many forests have been cut down and pandas have nowhere to go. This happened in 1975-6 when 40 pandas died of starvation. Scientists think that there are only between 400 and 1,000 giant pandas left in the wild. So it is absolutely necessary to find ways of protecting this big, gentle and very beautiful animal.

Голосование

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